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    Software name: appdown
    Software type: Microsoft Framwork

    size: 920MB

    Lanuage:Englist

    Software instructions

      103



      The work to be performed consists in cutting away the metal between the teeth of a rack, leaving a perfect outline for the teeth; and as the shape of teeth cannot well be obtained by an adjustment of tools, it must be accomplished by the shape of the tools. The shape of the tools must, therefore, be constantly maintained, [155] and as the cross section of the displaced metal is not too great, it may be assumed that the shape of the tools should be a profile of the whole space between two teeth, and such a space be cut away at one setting or one operation. By the application of certain rules laid down in a former place in reference to cutting various kinds of material, reciprocating or planing tools may be chosen instead of rotary or milling tools.

      In the meantime they themselves had a word or two to say about the fright I gave them; for when I stood at the door they mistook me in my sporting habit for a German officer, and the top of my water-bottle for the butt of a revolver!

      Nor did I see any inhabitants in the burning78 town. It was practically impossible to stay in the streets; burning walls and roofs and gutters crashed down with a great noise, so that the streets were as much on fire as the houses themselves. Only at the crossings were any soldiers to be seen, who, in various stages of intoxication, constantly aimed at the burning houses, and shot everything that tried to escape from the burning stables and barns: pigs, horses, cows, dogs, and so on.PREFACE


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      Patterns that are deep, and for castings that require to be parallel or square when finished, are made with the least possible amount of draught. If a pattern is a plain form, that affords [99] facilities for lifting or drawing, it may be drawn without taper if its sides are smooth and well finished. Pieces that are shallow and moulded often should, as a matter of convenience, have as much taper as possible; and as the quantity of draught can be as the depth of a pattern, we frequently see them made with a taper that exceeds one inch to the foot of depth.

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      Milling relates to metal cutting with serrated rotary cutters, and differs in many respects from either planing or turning. The movement of the cutting edges can be more rapid than with tools which act continuously, because the edges are cooled during the intervals between each cut; that is, if a milling tool has twenty teeth, any single tooth or edge acts only from a fifteenth to a twentieth part of the time; and as the cutting distance or time of cutting is rarely long enough to generate much heat, the speed of such tools may be one-half greater than for turning, drilling, or planing tools. Another distinction between milling and other tools is the perfect and rigid manner in which the cutting edges are supported; they are short and blunt, besides being usually carried on short rigid mandrils. A result of this rigid support of the tools is seen in the length of the cutting edges that can be employed, which are sometimes four inches or more in length. It is true the amount of material cut away in milling is much less than the edge movement will indicate when compared with turning or planing; yet the displacing capacity of a milling machine exceeds that of either a lathe or a planing machine. Theoretically the cutting or displacing capacity of any metal or wood cutting machine, is as the length of the edges multiplied into the speed of their cutting movement; a rule which applies very uniformly in wood cutting, and also in metal cutting within certain limits; but the strains that arise in metal cutting are so great that they may exceed all means of resisting them either in the material acted upon, or in the means of supporting tools, so that the length of cutting edges is limited. In turning chilled rolls at Pittsburg, [141] tools to six inches wide are employed, and the effect produced is as the length of the edge; but the depth of the cut is slight, and the operation is only possible because of the extreme rigidity of the pieces turned, and the tools being supported without movable joints as in common lathes.A difficulty which arises in hardening tools is because of the contraction of the steel which takes place in proportion to the change of temperature; and as the time of cooling is in proportion to the thickness or size of a piece, it follows, of course, that there is a great strain and a tendency to break the thinner parts before the thicker parts have time to cool; this strain may take place either from cooling one side first, or more rapidly than another.

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      Milling tools large enough to admit of detachable cutters being employed, are not so expensive to maintain as solid tools. Edge movement can sometimes be multiplied in this way, so as to greatly exceed what a single tool will perform.The poor wretches, who expected to be killed at any moment, were driven into squares or the meadows, where they were exposed to the chilly night air, so that several babies perished. Only the next morning were the women and children allowed to leavethat is to say, they were told to take the shortest way to Maastricht.


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